Tuesday, September 6, 2011

Advances in Virology is publishing a 'Special Issue' about XMRV

People are reporting difficulty accessing the website ... maybe there are enough of us trying that it's crashed?  So, here's the most-recent Co-Cure post that contains some of the info.
Note: Advances in Virology is publishing a 'Special Issue' about XMRV.
It appears that all of the papers included in this special issue have
been previously published and most of the XMRV-specific ones were
posted to Co-Cure upon initial publication. The full list with links
is included below this accompanying editorial.



Xenotropic and Other Murine Leukemia Virus-Related Viruses in Humans
Arifa S. Khan, Myra McClure, Yoshinao Kubo, Paul Jolicoeur

The recent discovery of a xenotropic murine leukemia virus-related
retrovirus (designated as XMRV) in prostrate cancer tissues and later
in chronic fatigue syndrome patients created excitement related to
possible association of a virus with these human diseases. However,
the failure to reproduce such results in other laboratories raised
concerns and much debate among scientists, patient populations and
clinicians over the original findings. This Special Issue is a
collection of recent research reports, which address this controversy
and also includes several expert reviews on various aspects of murine
retroviruses, such as virus biology, replication, phylogeny, and
pathogenesis, as well as XMRV in prostrate cancer.

The first paper by A. Rein reviews the murine retrovirus genomic
structure, viral structural proteins, and virus replication. The
second paper by C. Kozak provides a detailed review of murine
retrovirus entry into the cell and different receptor usage by
different types of murine retroviruses and with comparison to XMRV.
The third paper by J. Blomberg et al., discusses the phylogenetic
analysis of murine retroviruses and other retroviruses. The fourth
paper by J. Chakraborty discusses murine retrovirus pathogenesis and a
mouse model for transmission of lymphoma by breast milk, respectively.
The fifth paper by D. Kang et al., reviews the discovery, progress and
current status of XMRV findings in prostate cancer patients. The sixth
paper by S. Tang and I.K. Hewlett reviews XMRV detection assays and
deficiencies in the testing methods. The seventh paper by J.M. Coffin
and O. Cingöz provides a detailed review of the controversies related
to the XMRV results in human clinical samples and the findings
regarding virus origin and discusses the potential sources of
contamination that resulted in the misidentification of the virus as a
novel human retrovirus.

Additionally, the Special Issues contains various research papers
demonstrating the absence of XMRV in various patient populations using
sensitive assays for virus detection. The eighth paper by B. Oakes et
al., reports the absence of antibodies in CFS patients and healthy
controls using two novel sensitive immunoassays. The ninth paper by J.
Spindler et al., reports the lack of evidence of XMRV infection in
HIV-1 infected men or men at high risk for HIV-1 infection by
analyzing PBMCs and plasma samples using sensitive PCR assays and
immunoassays.The tenth paper by K. Delviks-Frankenberry et al.,
demonstrates the absence of XMRV in PBMCs and plasma from HIV-1
lymphoma patients using PCR or immunoassays. The eleventh paper by
M.J. Robinson et al., indicates the absence of XMRV sequences in
prostrate cancer samples from diverse populations, B cell lymphoma
patients, as well as UK blood donors. The twelfth paper by M. Kearney
et al., reports the use of different methodologies to demonstrate the
absence of XMRV in plasma and in some tissue samples from prostate
cancer patients. The final, thirteenth paper by P. Sharma et al.,
describes XMRV infection in in the reproductive tissues of rhesus
monkeys, indicating the possibility of an animal model for further
investigations of virus transmission.

This Special Issue provides the current thinking and recent research
results of studies on XMRV and other murine leukemia
retrovirus-related sequences in humans. At this point, a consensus
appears to be emerging that XMRV footprints or infectious XMRV
detected in normal human individuals or in some diseased patients
represent laboratory contaminations. Indeed, numerous studies have now
failed to confirm the presence of XMRV in humans and XMRV has recently
been found to be a laboratory-derived rare recombinant, which
originated during serial passages of a patient's prostate cancer cells
in nude mice. The information provided in this issue should be of
interest to a broad audience including scientists, clinicians, patient
populations, and public health agencies.

Arifa S. Khan
Myra McClure
Yoshinao Kubo
Paul Jolicoeur



Xenotropic and Other Murine Leukemia Virus-Related Viruses in Humans
Advances in Virology

1. Alan Rein - Review Article- Murine Leukemia Viruses: Biology and Replication

2. C. Kozak - Review Article- Naturally occurring polymorphisms of the
mouse gammaretrovirus receptors CAT-1 and XPR1 alter virus tropism and

3. J. Blomberg et al. - Review Article- Phylogeny-directed search for
murine leukemia virus - like retroviruses in vertebrate genomes, and
in patients suffering from Myalgic Encephalomyelitis/Chronic Fatigue
Syndrome and Prostate Cancer.

4. J. Chakraborty - Review Article- MoMuLV-ts-1: A Unique Mouse Model
of Retrovirus-Induced Lymphoma Transmitted by Breast Milk

5. D. Kang et al. - Review Article- XMRV Discovery and Prostate
Cancer-Related Research

6. S. Tang and I.K. Hewlett - Review Article- Testing Strategies for
Detection of Xenotropic Murine Leukemia Virus-Related Virus Infection

7. J.M. Coffin and O. Cingöz - Review Article- Endogenous Murine
Leukemia Viruses: Relationship to XMRV and MLVs Detected in Human DNA

8. B. Oakes et al. - Failure to detect XMRV-specific antibodies in the
plasma of CFS patients using Highly Sensitive Chemiluminescence

9. J. Spindler et al. - Prevalence of XMRV Nucleic Acid and Antibody
in HIV-1 Infected Men and in Men at Risk for HIV-1 Infection

10. K. Delviks-Frankenberry et al. - Lack of Detection of Xenotropic
Murine Leukemia Virus-Related Virus in HIV-1 Lymphoma Patients

11. M.J. Robinson et al. - No Evidence of XMRV or MuLV Sequences in
Prostate Cancer, Diffuse Large B-Cell Lymphoma, or the UK Blood Donor

12. M. Kearney et al - Nucleic Acid, Antibody, and Virus Culture
Methods to Detect Xenotropic MLV-Related Virus (XMRV) in Macaque and
Human Blood Samples

13. P. Sharma et al. - Sexual transmission of XMRV:a potential infection route
* * *
Anyone notice how the misogynists are disputing the existence of XMRV in CFS (women) but not in prostate cancer (men)?
They're not denying that XMRV exists, only that it (not psychobabble) is implicated in CFS.  Mary Schweitzer (among others) has written on that subject -- how can patients have antibodies to lab contamination?!

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